Composting is a natural process during which bacteria, microorganisms, fungi, and earthworms turn waste into valuable nutrient-rich soil. Those tiny characters take over the compost as a place to live, work, and eat.
1. Compost mix material
The right balance of materials is important for making good compost. The best compost mix is one where there is about an equal measure of:
· nitrogen-rich green leafy material – freshly mowed lawn and food waste
· carbon-rich fibrous lignified material – dried branches, twigs, household paper, sawdust
It is necessary to pay attention that neither kind of compost material does not dominate. Compost needs to be laid down in layers (for example, mowed lawn, kitchen waste, soil, peat, branches, leaves) while adding thinner twigs or lignified material. That way you’ll ensure that you will not have to reshuffle it or turn it too often.
2. Air and humidity
Compost mainly requires air and humidity for its vital functions – overly dense and wet compost starts to rot and smell. Proper compost is slightly glossy with humidity.
· Branches, soil, straw, and grass help increase fluffiness.
· If the compost is too dry, add moisture by watering. If you set up the compost bin in an overly low location, excess rain water may find its way in.
Compost needs to be aired, i.e. properly turned at least once a year.
3. Finding the right location
Install the compost bin in a garden corner where there’s less sunshine and wind, and avoid low locations because excess rain water must not spill into the box. Ensure that the compost bin is easily accessible with a garden cart and can also be accessed in winter.
4. Various composting facilities and methods
You can find the composting method that is most suitable to you depending on whether you live in the city or countryside, in private house or a block of flats, have a large garden or share a garden corner with your neighbours.
· Compost heap – no need to build or buy a compost bin; however, it needs to be ensured that the heap is not too alluring for animals and birds.
· Open (or lidded) compost bin – it is possible to build one yourself by reusing existing materials. See the instructions and recommendations on how to build yourself a dual chamber compost bin.
· Closed composter – the quickest and easiest way for a beginner to get started. Composters are on sale in various sizes and price ranges.
· Quick composter – available in shops and has extra heating installed to facilitate maturing in a couple of months.
· Drum composter – the composter includes a drum that can be rotated on horizontal and vertical axes. Even though it is well protected from pests, organic waste should not be added to it constantly; it must be accumulated and only added when the previous lot has been composted. Compost matures faster compared to the compost bin.
· Worm composter – a composter with special compost worms, tailored for indoor use.
· Bokashi system –
bokashi is Japanese for the fermentation of organic matter and it is
well suited for indoor use. You will need to bokashi buckets (preferably
with spigots), a small shovel for pressing the waste down, measuring cup for
the bran, and a cup for the liquid.
Find the composting method that is most suitable to you depending on whether you live in the city or countryside, in private house or a block of flats, have a large garden or share a garden corner with your neighbours.